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Rainfall-runoff characteristics and their threshold behaviors on a karst hillslope in a peak-cluster depression region
详细信息       来源:Journal of Hydrology    发布日期:2022年2月21日
  • 标题:Rainfall-runoff characteristics and their threshold behaviors on a karst hillslope in a peak-cluster depression region
  • 关键词:Hillslope hydrology;Soil-epikarst systems;Karst ecosystems;Subsurface runoff;Water balance;Threshold
  • 作者:

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Water balance characteristics and rainfall-runoff relationships of karst slope, are poorly understood worldwide, even though karst landscapes occupy 10–15% the planet’s land surface. Dynamic hydrological responses were monitored for 43 rainfall events on a karst slope in southwest China over two years (2018–2019). The responses included surface, subsurface, and epikarst seepage runoff (abbreviated as SR, SSR, and ESR, respectively) and soil water content at different depths (10 cm, 30 cm, and the soil-epikarst interface) in twelve plots (5 m × 20 m , total 1200 m 2 ). Results showed that: (1) The hillslope-scale SR, SSR, and ESR coefficients were 2.2% (0.4%–5.2%), 3.8% (0.2%–12.4%), and 31.2% (0.6%–89.1), respectively. SR and SSR were relatively rare and of short duration, while ESR was a crucial component of the karst hillslope water balance and its duration was longer, demonstrating the critical role of epikarst zone in regulating flow functions such as water storage and release; (2) Soil depth exerted the greatest direct effect on SR, which increased as soil deepened. Factors controlling the rainfall-SSR response were difficult to identify. They require other geophysical exploration methods; (3) Threshold-like runoff responses to rainfall inputs were observed on karst slope, and the rainfall depth (P) runoff initiation thresholds for SR and SSR were 36 ± 2 mm and 43 ± 7 mm, respectively. The strength of the threshold-like input–output relationships was slightly greater when the P + ASI (antecedent soil water content index) was used as the hydrological input variable rather than without consideration of ASI. The differing shapes of nonlinear hydrological behaviours, such as the ‘hockey stick’, ‘heaviside’ function, or the sigmoid function were detected in karst slope. This suggests karst hydrological system complexity. Threshold values should be determined according to the shapes of nonlinear hydrological behaviours. These results extend the understanding of karst hydrological processes.

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